Advances in Electroanalytical methods
The electroanalytical methods use electrically conductive probes, called electrodes, to make electrical contact with the analyte solution. The electrodes are used in conjunction with electric or electronic devices to which they are attached to measure an electrical parameter of the solution. The measured parameter is related to the identity of the analyte or to the quantity of the analyte in the solution.
The electroanalytical methods are divided into categories according to the electric parameters that are measured. The major electroanalytical methods include potentiometry, amperometry, conductometry, electrogravimetry, voltammetry (and polarography), and coulometry. The names of the methods reflect the measured electric property or its units:
- Potentiometry measures electric potential (or voltage) while maintaining a constant (normally nearly zero) electric current between the electrodes.
- Amperometry monitors electric current (amperes) while keeping the potential constant.
- Conductometry measures conductance (the ability of a solution to carry an electric current) while a constant alternating-current (AC) potential is maintained between the electrodes.
- Electrogravimetry is a gravimetric technique similar to the classical gravimetric methods that were described above, in which the solid that is weighed is deposited on one of the electrodes.
- Voltammetry is a technique in which the potential is varied in a regular manner while the current is monitored. Polarography is a subtype of voltammetry that utilizes a liquid metal electrode.
- Coulometry is a method that monitors the quantity of electricity (coulombs) that are consumed during an electrochemical reaction involving the analyte.
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